India is one of the agricultural based Nation with more than 58% of the population out of 1150 million, pertaining to agricultural sector. Before 1960, in India only of practice was followed without chemical fertilizers and pesticides. During late 1960s, there was threaten to food security due to population raise and frequent droughts. Government of India had entered collaboration with USA for reforming farming practices by adding chemical products for cultivation, diseases and weed management. There was increase in production and productivity in chemical or conventional farming and our country was able to satisfy partly the food security. After 30-40 years, production and productivity reduced drastically with abnormal input costs and the farming sector turned to be unfavorable occupation to all concerned. Soil degradation, more diseases, uncontrollable weeds, high water consumption, unfavorable price and with several natural and man-made issues, conventional farming turned to be unworthy for farmers.
Organic farming is a method of farming system which primarily aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, so as to keep the soil in good health by use of organic wastes and other biological materials along with beneficial microbes. Nutrients are provided to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco-friendly and pollution free environment. The aim is to create integrated, human, environmentally and economically sustainable production system which maximize reliance on farm derived renewable resources and management of ecological and biological processes and interactions so as to provide acceptable level of crop, livestock and human nutrition, protection from pests and diseases and appropriate return to the human and other resources. Organic farming means holistic production systems which refer earth friendly methods for cultivation and food processing. It differs from other systems by the certification procedures, specific standards and a specific labeling scheme. Organic farming respects the environment by friendly practice of weeds, insect-pests and diseases control. Insecticides, pesticides, chemical fertilizers, growth hormones and antibiotics are not used in organic farming. Eco-friendly techniques are employed to increase the production. Organic farming is based on the integral relationship and we need to understand the relationship between different entities of a farm. The organic farming is based on organic relationship. The understanding of these relationships is the nucleus of organic farming. The organic farming is not only derived from organic matter but rather is a type of farming comprised of organic principles. Organic farming can be perceived as a system which should always be in search of natural alternatives suitable to the local specificity.
Organic farming in India is gaining popularity day by day. One can get organic certification by strictly following organic farming methods. Organic produces have great market value and demand. A recent TechSci report forecasts that India's organic food market is set to grow by 25% over the next 4 years, with a Yes Bank report stating that India's organic food sector will increase from a current estimate of Euro 370 million to Euro 10 billion by 2025. Essentially, from the start, it has been fringe actors and social movements that have been driving for food to be grown naturally, while government policy was still pushing for industrialized farming post-independence. The progress that has been made since that time has been taken forward primarily by civil society organizations, entrepreneurs, and individuals. Through independent businesses, farmers' markets, informal education, and infrastructure building, Indian citizens have been supplying and meeting the demands of the domestic organic market without any strong, substantial and holistic national certification or policies towards the sector. While the Indian government has taken steps recently in bringing organic farming closer to policy with the National Program for Organic Production (NPOP), there are still significant holes when addressing the entire supply chain - the primary one being that the entire supply chain has to be foolproof in ensuring that the food is genuinely organic from the dedicated farmers to the hungry consumers. Ever increasing population as opposed to an ever decreasing supply of living resources like food and water has made it necessary to increase the agricultural production and stabilize it in a viable and feasible manner.